Research Tools: Decision Support
A significant part of NSSL’s specialized field instrumentation is built, managed and maintained by an experienced group of problem-solvers on the Field Observing Facilities Support team who work hard to come up with innovative ways to support NSSL scientist’s storm research efforts.
- Dave Jorgensen, Team Leader
- Sherman Fredrickson, Instrumentation Meteorologist
- Doug Kennedy, Physical Scientist
- Dennis Nealson, Engineering Technician (retired PT)
- Sean Waugh, Ph.D. graduate student
NSSL Research Vehicle Fleet
NSSL's Mobile Mesonet (MM) vehicles, currently designated Probes 3 and 4, began as standard 2007 Dodge Caravan Minivans. The FOFS team modified these minivans to incorporate a suite of weather instruments attached to a custom-designed rack on top to go along with a cargo of computer equipment inside. Scientists drive them through all kinds of conditions, ranging from benign, pre-storm conditions to actual severe storm environments. Measurements are made of temperature, humidity, pressure, wind and solar radiation; storing data on board while simultaneously telemetering it back to scientists at central facilities. The probe design is based on an original concept produced for the first VORTEX project in 1994–1995. NSSL/FOFS continues to modify and upgrade the MM design, including the recent (2009) invention of the U-Tube; an improved, aspirated temperature solar radiation shield for mobile platforms and high wind conditions. The most recent Mobile Mesonet vehicles are based on trucks, rather than the earlier minivan vehicles.
NSSL6 is the 6th mobile laboratory operated at NSSL since the mobile laboratory idea was first implemented. It consists of a 2002 Ford F450 chassis on which is mounted a custom designed, science laboratory module. NSSL also has NSSL7; a 2006 Ford F450 chassis on which is mounted a slightly different science laboratory module. Both NSSL6 and NSSL7 contain computer and telecommunication hardware, balloon launching equipment and specialized weather instruments, and can be driven virtually anywhere to collect data or coordinate field operations.
Mobile Doppler radar
NSSL’s NOAA X-POL (NOXP) mobile radar has dual-polarization technology and is heavily used across the U.S. NSSL uses NOXP to study tornadoes, hurricanes, dust storms, winter storms, mountain rainfall, and even swarms of bats.
Other NSSL vehicles
NSSL leases a 2009 Chevrolet Tahoe that is primarily used for servicing the Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network. It is also used for the occasional transportation of equipment and personnel to and from very remote, special projects and local trips for project parts.
NSSL3 is an 8 ft by 16 ft Wells Cargo utility trailer custom modified with extra wall insulation, roof top heat and air conditioning, A/C power outlets, wall mounted cabinets and reinforced floor. Its use is in field projects where research equipment (desktop computers, test, repair, data collection hardware, etc) would normally require office-like environments.
2-Dimensional Video Distrometer (2DVD)
The 2DVD is used in polarimetric radar studies. It does this by recording 2-dimensional images of any particles falling through its imaging area. It measures rain drop size distribution, rain rate and other parameters useful in refining precipitation identification algorithms.
Portable Observation Device (POD)
NSSL /FOFS has two portable, configurable platforms with sensors that can measure temperature, humidity, pressure, winds and solar radiation. The configuration can also include a PARSIVEL disdrometer that measures and derives particle size and fall velocity. Data are collected and stored on board and can be telemetered to central facilities. The PODs can be transported and deployed quickly in the field in support of storm research projects.
NSSL researchers launch weather balloons into thunderstorms. Measurements from the small packages of weather instruments attached to the balloons provide actual weather data from inside the storm where it is too dangerous for research aircraft to fly.
NSSL/FOFS has designed and built a special balloon borne instrument designed to capture high-definition video images of water and ice particles as it rises through a thunderstorm. A variety of equipment is typically flown together on the same balloon where the “instrument train” consists of instruments that measure profiles of thunderstorm electric field strength and direction along with other sensor systems that measure temperature, humidity, pressure and winds. These balloon flights (or soundings) help researchers investigate the relationships between thunderstorm microphysical properties and what weather radar “sees”.
Electric Field Meters (EFM)
NSSL/FOFS has a collection of Electric Field Meters that are attached to balloons and launched into storms to help learn more about the electrical structure of storms. Read more about it
Oklahoma Lightning Mapping Array (OKLMA)
NSSL/FOFS installed and maintains the OKLMA and provides three-dimensional mapping of lightning channel segments over west central Oklahoma and two-dimensional mapping of all lightning over most of Oklahoma. Up to thousands of points can be mapped for an individual lightning flash, to reveal its location and the development of its structure.
The VHF antenna receives signals in the channel 3 television band. This signal is processed by electronics in the small plastic building on the left of the picture to determine the time at which the signal is received to within less than a millionth of a second. This time and information about the signal is then sent back to a central processor in Norman via the communication antenna beside the plastic building. The central processor records the information from all stations and, in real time, uses the times from several antennas to determine the three-dimensional location at which a lightning channel segment radiated the signal. These data are being used with radar and other storm measurements in scientific studies to help understand how thunderstorms produce lightning and to develop ways of using lightning mapping data to warn and forecast of weather hazards.
Boundary Layer Profilers
Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI)
NSSL uses special instruments mounted on the top of the National Weather Center that can measure the thermodynamic properties of the lowest 1-2km of the atmosphere (boundary layer). These instruments include:
- Microwave Radiometer (MWR, model MP-3000A) is provided by Radiometrics, Inc. in an agreement with the University of Oklahoma.
- Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) is provided by by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program.
- Total Sky Imager (TSI)
Researchers study the data to learn more about the structure of the boundary layer, shallow convective cloud processes, the interaction between clouds, aerosols, radiation, precipitation and the thermodynamic environment, mixed phase clouds, and more. Numerical models, such as those used for climate and weather prediction, have large uncertainties in all of these areas. Researchers also use these observations to improve our understanding and representation of these processes.
Vehicle High Bay
The National Weather Center Vehicle high Bay is divided into an east and west section with a cinder block wall and high shelving dividing the two areas. Work on University of Oklahoma radar vehicles typically is done on the east half of the bay. The west side is primarily used by NSSL for building, modifying and staging Mobile Laboratory vehicles, Mobile Mesonet vehicles and storm ballooning project systems and equipment.
The NSSL Machine Shop is a 35 by 30 foot, high ceiling area that houses all of NSSL's machine equipment, tools and project assembly work benches. Equipment consists of:
- drill presses
- pedestal mounted grinder
- chop saws
- band saw
- radial arm saw
- belt and disk sanding machine
- jig saw
- small capacity milling machine
- a computer controlled x,y and z router
- arc welder
- plasma cutter
- miscellaneous hand tools
Safety is always an important consideration in any machine shop for both the work environment and operator habits. To be an authorized user of the NSSL machine shop, an applicant must view a series of on-line machine safety videos and be approved by FOFS with a demonstration of skill. Machine shop users' techniques are also frequently monitored by FOFS personnel.
Industrial forklift, Raymond Walkie Straddle Model RAS20
This is a walk-behind, battery operated forklift with a 2000 lb weight lift capacity and 13.5 ft height lift capacity. It is essential for lifting equipment to be stored on the NWC vehicle high bay shelves and invaluable for use as a liftable work platform for installing equipment in high, tight spaces where ladders are inadequate.
Scissor Lift, Genie Model GS2046
This is a battery operated scissor lift with 1200 lb weight lift capacity and a 26 ft working height capacity.